Hrvatski | List of Bans in Croatian Kingdom | Legal Notice

List of Croatian Heads of State

626 - 925

925 - 1918
House of Trpimirović 13
House of Arpad 15
House of Anjou 4
House of Luxembourg 2
House of Hunyadi 1
House of Jagiellon 3
House of Habsburg 11
House of Habsburg-Lorraine 7
1918 - 1939
1939 - 1941
1941 - 1945
Since 1945
Communist 15
Democratic 4

Croatian Heads of State
Seven White Croatian clans, led by brothers Klukas, Lobel, Kosjenc, Muhlo and Hrvat; and sisters Tuga and Buga, upon invitation by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, in 626 arrived to Dalmatia to release it from the Avars, which were then, together with the Slavs, besieging Constantinople. Having defeated the Avars, the Croats submitted the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Pannonia and Illyricum and established the principalities of Littoral Croatia and Savian Croatia.

Principality of Littoral Croatia (626 – 925)
Littoral Croatia, that became the Croatian Kingdom in 925, continuously existed as a sovereign state until 1918. In contrast, the sovereignty of Savian Croatia was soon lost and only briefly restored 818 – 822 in the time of Prince Ljudevit Posavski.

Radoslav626 – 640
Porga640 – 680• Christianisation of the Croats in 641
Budimir740 – 780
Višeslav785 – 802
Borna803 – 821
Vladislav821 – 835
Mislav835 – 845
House of Trpimirović
Trpimir I845 – 864
Domagoj864 – 876
Inoslav876 – 878
Sedeslav878 – 879
Branimir879 – 892
Muncimir892 – 910
Tomislav910 – 925• Incorporation of Savian Croatia

Croatian Kingdom (925 – 1918)
From 1102, the Croatian Kingdom had common kings with other states (personal union), that were nominated by the Sabor (Parliament). The kings are presented according to Croatian numbering (e.g. Hungarian king Bela II was Croatian king Bela I). The official (diplomatic) names of the Croatian Kingdom were the following:
- Kingdom of Croatia (925 – 970)
- Kingdom of Croatia and Dalmatia (970 – XIII century)
- Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia (XIII century – 1868)
- Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia (1868 – 1918)

House of Trpimirović
Tomislav925 – 928• Prince Tomislav defeated the Hungarians and Bulgarians, united the country and became the King in 925
Trpimir II928 – 935
Krešimir I935 – 945
Miroslav945 – 949
Michael Krešimir II949 – 969
Stephen Držislav969 – 997• Incorporation of Dalmatian cities in 970
Svetislav Surina997 – 1000
Krešimir III1000 – 1030
Stephen I1030 – 1058
Peter Krešimir IV1058 – 1074
Demetrius Zvonimir1075 – 1089• Separation of independent Kingdom of Doclea in 1077
Stephen II1089 – 1091
Peter Svačić1093 – 1097• Killed on the Gvozd mountain in 1097 while defending the country from the Hungarians. Although without the king, in 1099 the united Croatian counts pushed the Hungarians back over the Drava river
• Having started a new campaign against Croatia, but stopped in 1102 on the Drava river facing the convened Croatian army, Hungarian King Coloman offered an agreement to the Croats (the Kiss of Peace)
House of Arpad
Coloman1102 – 1116• Elected and crowned as the Croatian King in 1102 by the agreement Pacta Conventa (personal union of Croatia and Hungary)
Stephen III1116 – 1131
Bela I the Blind1131 – 1141
Geza I1141 – 1162
Stephen IV1162
Ladislaus I1162 – 1163
Stephen V1163
Stephen IV1163 – 1172
Bela II1173 – 1196
Emeric1196 – 1204
Ladislaus II1204 – 1205
Andrew I1205 – 1235
Bela III1235 – 1270
Stephen VI1270 – 1272
Ladislaus III the Cuman1272 – 1290
Andrew II the Venetian1290 – 1300
House of Anjou
Charles Robert1300 – 1342• King of Hungary only from 1307 (restored personal union)
Louis I1342 – 1382• Separation of independent Kingdom of Bosnia in 1377
Mary1382 – 1385
Charles of Durazzo1385 – 1386
Various Houses
Sigismund of Luxembourg1387 – 1437• First Ottoman attacks in 1396
• Venice captures most of the coastal cities and islands in 1420
- Stephen Tvrtko of Kotromanić1387 – 1391
- Ladislaus of Naples of Anjou1391 – 1409
Albert of Habsburg1437 – 1439
Elisabeth of Luxembourg1439 – 1440
Vladislaus I of Jagiellon1440 – 1444
Ladislaus the Posthumous of Habsburg1444 – 1457
Matthias Corvinus of Hunyadi1458 – 1490• Strong continuous Ottoman attacks after the conquest of Bosnia in 1463
Vladislaus II of Jagiellon1490 – 1516
Louis II of Jagiellon1516 – 1526• Title Antemurale Christianitatis given to Croatia by the Pope in 1519
• Separation of independent Republic of Dubrovnik in 1526
House of Habsburg
Ferdinand I1527 – 1564• Elected as the King by the Sabor in exchange to help defence against Ottomans (personal union with Austria)
• Organisation of Military Frontier under the administration of the joint army in 1553
- John of Zapolja1527 – 1538
Maximilian I1564 – 1576
Rudolf I1576 – 1608• Croatia reduced to Reliquiae reliquiarum, but further Ottoman conquests were halted by the Sisak victory in 1593
Matthias II1608 – 1619
Ferdinand II1619 – 1637
Ferdinand III1637 – 1657
Leopold I1657 – 1705• Due to King's avoidance of the undertaken obligation to liberate the occupied territories, unsatisfied Croatian and Hungarian magnates initiated the Zrinski-Frankopan Conspiracy, suppressed by the King, who had fraudulently captured and executed Zrinski and Frankopan, and confiscated their estates in 1671. Since then, the Habsburg Kings (in permanent conflict of interest as the Croatian, Czech and Hungarian Kings, German Emperors and Austrian Archdukes) were openly supporting the interests of Austria or Hungary, often to the detriment of Croatia.
• Ottomans expelled from Central Croatia and most of Slavonia in 1699, but not from Bosnia and Herzegovina
• Venice captures entire Dalmatian coast in 1671 and hinterland in 1699 and 1718
Joseph I1705 – 1711
Charles III1711 – 1740• Succession to the Croatian throne recognised by the Sabor to the female line of Habsburg in 1712 (Pragmatic Sanction)
• Liberation of Slavonia completed in 1718
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Maria Theresa1740 – 1780• Slavonia returned under the Croatian administration in 1745
Joseph II1780 – 1790
Leopold II1790 – 1792• Act of the Sabor on accession to the real union with Hungary in 1790, until the remaining areas under the Ottoman and Venetian rules are restored. Simultaneously, Hungary started aggressive policy against Croatia, which culminated in 1848.
Francis I1792 – 1835• After the end of Republic of Venice the royal army captured Dalmatia, but it was not returned under the Croatian administration
• Republic of Dubrovnik ended in 1808 and merged with Dalmatia in 1814
Ferdinand IV1835 – 1848• Withdrawal from the real union and the war with Hungary in 1848 – 49: "The King of Croatia had declared war on the King of Hungary while the Emperor of Austria remained neutral and these three monarchs were one and the same person"
Francis Joseph I1848 – 1916• By the Croatian-Hungarian Compromise of 1868, the two states created a real union under the name Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen
• The royal army captured Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, but it was not incorporated into Croatia
• Military Frontier returned under the Croatian administration in 1881
• The military intelligence of the Kingdom of Serbia (with the program of territorial extension aimed at Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina), in Sarajevo in 1914 organised the assassination of the heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand, who planned the trialist reorganisation of the Habsburg Monarchy, consisting of Austria, Hungary and Croatia (including Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Charles IV1916 – 1918• The Sabor declared independence by discontinuing constitutional links with Austria and Hungary; creation of provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in 1918

Occupation (1918 – 1939)
Croatia was occupied by the Serbian army in 1918 and was by coercion, without consent of the Sabor, included in the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). By this act, for the first time after 13 centuries Croatia ceased to exist as a state. Yugoslavia ceded to Italy parts of Croatian coast (Istria, Rijeka, Zadar and a number of islands) in 1920.

Banovina of Croatia (1939 – 1941)
By the agreement between the Yugoslav Government and Croatian opposition in 1939, the autonomous Banovina of Croatia was established within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. It included most of the territories of Croatia, as well as parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lasted until the Axis powers broke up Yugoslavia in 1941. The Banovina of Croatia was administered by the Ban, on behalf of the King of Yugoslavia and Croatian Sabor.

Ivan Šubašić1939 – 1941

Independent State of Croatia (1941 – 1945)
Founded in 1941 under the auspices of the Axis powers and Ustaše dictatorship. It included Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but ceded most of Dalmatia and the littoral to Italy, as well as Međimurje and Baranja to Hungary. After the capitulation of Italy in 1943, it incorporated most of Dalmatia. Until 1943 it was technically a kingdom, with Italian Prince Aimone of Savoy as the King Tomislav II, but the actual authority was held by the Poglavnik of Ustaše. Defeated in the World War II and ceased to exist in 1945.

Ante Pavelić1941 – 1945

1944 – 1946

1946 – 1990

Since 1990

Republic of Croatia (1944 – 1990 – present)
Partisan resistance movement led by Yugoslav communists, in 1943 established the National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH), which proclaimed incorporation of coastal areas into Croatia (ceded to Italy in 1920). In 1944, ZAVNOH founded the Federal State of Croatia, one of the six constituent states of the communist Yugoslav federation. The President of Sabor (the Parliament; former ZAVNOH) was the Head of the State until 1974, when the collective Presidency was established. After the first democratic elections in 1990, the President of the Presidency became the President of the Republic, directly elected since 1992. As most of the republics of the disintegrating Yugoslavia, Croatia declared independence in 1991. The official names of the Republic of Croatia were the following:
- Federal State of Croatia (1944 – 1946)
- People's Republic of Croatia (1946 – 1963)
- Socialist Republic of Croatia (1963 – 1990)
- Republic of Croatia (Since 1990)

Presidents of the Presidium of the Sabor
Vladimir Nazor1944 – 1949• By the internal Yugoslav delimitation in 1946, Croatia lost eastern Srijem to Serbia and Kotor bay to Montenegro (both within Croatian Kingdom until 1918)
- President of the Presidency of the ZAVNOH 1944 – 1945
- President of the Sabor 1945 – 1946
- President of the Presidium of the Sabor 1946 – 1949
Karlo Mrazović1949 – 1952
Vicko Krstulović1952 – 1953
Presidents of the Sabor
Zlatan Sremec1953
Vladimir Bakarić1953 – 1963
Ivan Krajačić1963 – 1967
Jakov Blažević1967 – 1974• In 1971 the Yugoslav regime suppressed the democratic movement Croatian Spring, which opposed the Belgrade’s centralism and artificial merger of the Croatian language with Serbian into Serbo-Croatian
Ivo Perišin1974
Presidents of the Presidency
Jakov Blažević1974 – 1982
Marijan Cvetković1982 – 1983
Milutin Baltić1983 – 1984
Jakša Petrić1984 – 1985
Pero Car1985
Ema Derossi-Bjelajac1985 – 1986
Ante Marković1986 – 1988
Ivo Latin1988 – 1990
Presidents of the Republic
Franjo Tuđman
- President of the Presidency 1990
- President of the Republic 1990 – 1999
1990 – 1999• Declaration of independence and aggression of the rump Yugoslavia (Serbia, Montenegro, the federal army and local rebels) in 1991
• The United Nations membership in 1992
• Liberation of most of the occupied areas in 1995
• The Council of Europe membership in 1996
• Reintegration of eastern Slavonia in 1998
Acting (Presidents of the Sabor):
- Vlatko Pavletić1999 – 2000
- Zlatko Tomčić2000
Stjepan Mesić2000 – 2010• Reintegration of the remaining part of southern Dalmatia in 2002
• NATO membership in 2009
Ivo Josipović2010 – 2015• The European Union membership in 2013
Kolinda Grabar-KitarovićSince 2015


List of Bans in Croatian Kingdom

Copyright © Zoran Lukić, 1997, 2012. All rights reserved.
Republication of the content of this page is permitted, provided the source is attributed.

Online since 1994
This List of Croatian Heads of State was first published on the Gopher in 1994.
Transformed into the Web version in 1997 and revised in 2003 and 2012.